Navarro-Hernández, M.I.; Tomás, R.; Lopez-Sanchez, J.M.; Cárdenas-Tristán, A.; Mallorquí, J.J.
The San Luis Potosi metropolitan area has suffered considerable damage from land subsidence over the past decades, which has become visible since 1990. This paper seeks to evaluate the effects of groundwater withdrawal on land subsidence in the San Luis Potosi Valley and the development of surface faults due to the differential compaction of sediments. For this purpose, we applied the Coherent Pixels Technique (CPT), a Persistent Scatterer Interferometry (PSI) technique, using 112 Sentinel-1 acquisitions from October 2014 to November 2019 to estimate the deformation rate. The results revealed that the deformation areas in the municipality of Soledad de Graciano Sánchez mostly exhibit subsidence values between −1.5 and −3.5 cm/year; whereas in San Luis Potosi these values are between −1.8 and −4.2 cm/year. The PSI results were validated by five Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) benchmarks available, providing a data correlation between the results obtained with both techniques of 0.986. This validation suggests that interferometric derived deformations agree well with results obtained from GNSS data. The strong relationship between trace fault, land subsidence, and groundwater extraction suggests that groundwater withdrawal is resulting in subsidence induced faulting, which follows the pattern of structural faults buried by sediments.
Remote Sens. 2020, 12, 3822.